Emily Carlson Goenner
The vast majority of companies currently have an online presence in some fashion, from Facebook to a website to extensive and coordinated digitalized marketing plans. Large and mid-sized companies have social media managers to organize and promote their online marketing, but not all companies have the staff or budget for such positions.
In this dynamic environment, instructors of business and professional communication and marketing courses need a way to prepare students to enter the business world where they may be called upon to create content for social media and digital platforms. Regardless of major, recent college graduates are often seen as digital natives who are recruited in part for their skills and ability to keep pace with digitalization (Olson and Bernhard, 388-389).
The following case was prepared to help students understand how to use social media for business purposes. The case may be used in a variety of ways: as a research project or basis for an integrated marketing plan; as a compare/contrast exercise or a discussion touchpoint. It challenges students to consider and apply framing, strategic approach, and tone that would spur an audience to action.
How to Stay Ablaze: Exploring a Young Company’s Social Media Use
Analisa sighed as she closed her laptop. “The governor just issued a stay-at-home order,” she said to her partner, Jacob. “What are we going to do now?” Analisa walked to the back door and stared out at the remnants of the Wisconsin winter snow slowly melting. Analisa felt as gray as the weather outside.
Only a few months into 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic was ravaging the country. New York hospitals were overwhelmed, with nurses and doctors begging for personal protective products (PPP) and ventilators to help save the sickest patients. Now, the virus was spreading across the country and changing Analisa’s marketing plans.
Analisa began developing skin care products for her teenage daughter when the cold Wisconsin winters caused rough red patches on her cheeks and hands. Doctors prescribed harsh medicines that Analisa did not want to use. With a belief that the right nutrition is needed to thrive, both in the body and on the skin, Analisa decided to create her own products—food for the skin! In her kitchen, with her daughter and son as test subjects, Analisa tried ingredients and combinations, eventually creating a rich moisturizing lotion made with shea butter, jojoba and olive oils, beeswax, arrowroot powder and several essential oils like lavender and rosemary. The product worked so well for Analisa, she began sharing it with family and friends and eventually decided to start a company.
Analisa saw a large market for eco-friendly, organic body products in Madison, where her son was attending college. Many college students and other consumers are concerned about using chemicals on their skin. Organic, natural products are increasingly popular. The organic, natural skin product market was a natural fit for concern about the environment, sustainability, and cruelty-free products. Analisa wanted to her company to represent her beliefs about protecting the environment, providing safe, organic, cruelty-free products.
Before launching her company, Analisa developed a second product, a body scrub that is a combination of oatmeal, sea salt, olive oil and essential oils. It gently removes dead skin cells to create a fresh, lustrous complexion, which most women desire.
“Karl,” Analisa called to her son one Saturday morning. “Come and try this new scrub. It’d be great for your acne.” Twenty-year-old Karl leaned over the kitchen counter and sniffed at the bowl of face scrub. “Smells like girl, mom,” he said. “No way am I using that!” As she watched him grab his lacrosse bag and head out to practice, Analisa wondered how she could get men to use her products. She soon developed a more traditionally masculine lotion and scrub to appeal to men, with scented with oils like fir needle, sandalwood and pepper.
When she began selling her products at local farmers’ markets and festivals, Analisa had great success. Customers loved the sample lotions she provided under a clean white tent, and soon, customers returned, praising the rich moisturizing lotion. “My skin has never been so soft” one customer gushed.
Analisa smiled. “I wanted to create all-natural personal care line that cares for people,” she told the customer. “I’m so glad it is!”
Increasingly, Analisa advertised her company’s focus on reciprocity between humans and nature. Every decision she made, from organic ingredients to plastic-free packaging to sales, was driven by the goal of making a positive impact on the environment and humanity. She truly wanted her business to care, care for beauty, wellness, and life.
Turning back to her partner, Analisa sounded dejected. “I won’t be able to sell at the Farmer’s Market next month,” she said. The farmer’s market was her largest source of sales and marketing.
“The art festival next month will probably be cancelled too,” Jacob added, referring to another event Analisa planned to attend with her products.
“What am I going to do?”
“Maybe the kids could help you?” Jacob suggested. “You know, that Facebook or the YouTube? Maybe they have some ideas for how to get people to your lotions.”
Shaking her head, Analisa chuckled. “I have a website and that Facebook, as you call it. But, maybe there are other ways to increase sales. Hmmm, maybe I’ll ask the kids.”
Assume Analisa has asked you for help promoting her business. She has an attractive website up and running and a Facebook page she uses occasionally. Analisa knows that social media can be a valuable marketing tool, but she doesn’t know much about it and feels overwhelmed by the many types of social media. She isn’t experienced with stories or hashtags and doesn’t know where to start or what to do. Her main goals are to increase followers on social media and increase sales.
Your job is to help Analisa and her company. What do you suggest she do? What social media platforms might be best for her small, all-natural skin care company? How would her small company use social media for marketing? Make some recommendations and show Analisa some examples of social media posts to help increase her sales.
Background Information for Instructors
The COVID-19 pandemic entered this already social media focused world and changed the ways companies do business due to wide-spread shut-downs and social distancing policies. While difficult, this change forced many businesses to quickly pivot to focus on online communication to reach customers. Early in the pandemic, Quantum Metric showed “online orders have surged by 108 percent year-over-year in February” (Pastore, 2020), and engagement with online advertisements rose 15%, according to one study (Williams, 2020). Companies have redirected marketing budgets and tactics, promoted at-home and delivery services and otherwise responded to shifts in consumer behavior and expectations (Talbot, 3-4).
According to the National Association of Colleges and Employers’ (NACE) 2019 Job Outlook survey, “digital technology is the fifth most essential competency,” just behind teamwork/collaboration and oral/written communications (NACE Staff, 2019). Technology skills employers want include “the ability to understand and utilize social media effectively” (Digital Marketing Institute, 2017), regardless of major, and the ability to create social media content is largely reliant on written communication skills (Doyle, 2020). As the Digital Marketing Institute wrote, “the key thing about digital skills is that they can be used in any job role; it is not solely the domain of marketers or sellers” (Digital Marketing Institute, 2017). Students in marketing and business fields need to have a basic knowledge of how to create content for social media, including understanding of audience, tone, clarity, and voice.
In this case, a small company was beginning operations at the time COVID-19 hit. The company had to refocus its growth efforts to online platforms as pandemic restrictions removed many traditional forms of reaching customers. The case focuses on ways the company can continue to grow using social media (SM). As social media evolves, this case is nimble enough to allow students to apply knowledge of new social media platforms as they develop.
In this case, social media is defined as applications and websites, or other electronic communication that allow users to create and share content. The applications facilitate sharing of ideas and information by building online communities of users. Via the internet, users communicate, interact, create content and share content.
Social media includes social networking sites like Facebook and Twitter. Applications like Instagram and Pinterest are more image sharing and messaging sites. Video is the focus on TikTok and YouTube. Other common sites include social blogging and community discussion forums, like Reddit. While a variety of applications are housed under the term “social media,” each application, website, blog etc. has its unique characteristics and conventions. For example, Instagram is mainly a photo sharing application and the text-based posts common on Facebook would be inappropriate for Instagram.
A notable aspect of social media is its interactivity. Users create content. Companies create content. Users share companies’ content, both good and bad. In this way, companies must be aware of their posts and responses on all platforms, as well as what users are saying about them.
This case is an effective tool for business communication, marketing, and social media marketing courses. It is a highly customizable case, from a class discussion of ideas to a written and/or oral report on a group’s findings and marketing plan. The case may be used to focus on writing for social media platforms, creating marketing plans, creating social media marketing plans, comparing and analyzing social media analytics, or writing an integrated marketing plan.
Further, the instructor needs minimal knowledge of social media to successfully use this case because students research the social media best practices. Students bring ideas for social media platforms (Reddit, TikTok), research the platforms’ best practices for businesses, and create content. Students may also research current competitors for the skin care company; brands such as Dove and Burt’s Bees may be suggested as competitors, but students may also identify brands they see on social media platforms. Since students are doing most of the background work on environment, competitors, and social media platforms, the instructor needs to guide the project but needs not be an expert in these areas. In addition, because social media campaigns and trends change so rapidly, the case remains useful across semesters as students adapt to the social media environment and new trends.
Recommended Teaching Approach
The Ablaze Naturals case can be adapted to many classes and many situations. Overall, learning objectives are that students will:
• Explore ways a company can reach audiences using online media
• Propose social media uses, including the most relevant social media platforms
• Create social media campaigns, focusing on consistent messaging across platforms
• Craft messages for social media considering audience, word choice, tone, visuals etc.
These objectives may be reached through a discussion or a variety of assignments. The discussion guidance and suggestions for assignments are provided next.
Barcelos, R. H., Dantas, D. C., & Sénécal, S. (2018). Watch your tone: How a brand’s tone of voice on social media influences consumer responses. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 41, 60-80.
Digital Marketing Institute. (2017). “10 digital skills that can make students instantly employable.” Retrieved, February 25, 2020, from https://digitalmarketinginstitute.com/blog/10-digital-skills-that-can-make-students-instantly-employable
Doyle, A. (Oct. 2020). “Important social media skills that employers value.” The Balance Careers. Retrieved, February 26, 2020, from https://www.thebalancecareers.com/social-media-skills-2063726
Macarthy, A. (2021). 500 social media marketing tips: essential advice, hints and strategy for business: facebook, twitter, pinterest, google+, youtube, instagram, linkedin, and More.
NACE Staff. (March 2019). “The four career competencies employers value most.” Retrieved, February 26, 2020, from https://www.naceweb.org/career-readiness/competencies/the-four-career-competencies-employers-value-most/
Ray, J. (2019, Oct. 23-26). Social media 101: Don’t be left behind! [Conference Presentation Abstract]. ABC 84th annual international conference, Detroit, MI United States. https://www.businesscommunication.org/p/do/sd/sid=3158
For Class Discussion
Distribute the case to students before class, ask them to review it and prepare some ideas. In class, have groups discuss their ideas for using social media marketing to improve Ablaze Natural’s market share and increase sales. Discuss changes in companies’ marketing due to COVID-19, marketing ideas/plans, audience, writing for social media platforms, analytics etc.
Useful discussion questions:
• Which social media platforms would be most beneficial for Analisa’s company? Why?
• Envision a campaign. Why did you select this campaign and/or platforms? How will this help Ablaze Naturals?
• What factors did you consider when drafting/creating posts for Ablaze Natural’s campaign?
• Describe the company culture. How does that translate online?
• What did you learn about companies’ use of social media?
• How did the COVID-19 pandemic affect Ablaze Naturals and/or your ideas for the company? What would you suggest for Ablaze Naturals post-pandemic?
Responses to discussion questions will vary based on the previous knowledge of the students and the focus of the courses in which the case is being used. A course focused on integrated strategic marketing will elicit different responses from a general business communication course.
Some Possible Answers to Discussion Questions
Which social media platforms would be most beneficial for Analisa’s company? Why? Responses will vary based on student interest and social media platforms. Some platforms commonly cited as highly beneficial are Instagram, YouTube, Pinterest and TikTok. Instagram and Pinterest are highly visual platforms where images of Ablaze Naturals products will be appealing to customers. Posting on these platforms is not hard and will require minimal effort. Partnering with influencers on these platforms is an increasingly popular suggestion. Demographics for platforms should be cited. Pinterest’s audience is largely middle-age women, for example, while TikTok will reach younger users (teens and early 20-somethings), including young men. YouTube and TikTok, as largely video platforms, are often suggested as more engaging.
Why did you select this campaign and/or platforms? How will this help Ablaze Naturals? Students should consider the focus of the company—natural skin care products—and the current environment. Campaigns related to holidays, seasons, or other events are common. For example, a campaign related to dry winter skin was proposed. Students should be encouraged to be creative in their development of a marketing/social media campaign and consider the types of advertisements they see on social media. A key to successful social media marketing is staying up-to-date with current trends; research on competitors’ social media posting should reveal some current trends.
When exploring different social media platforms, students should consider the main audiences of each platform. For example, a hiring campaign will be presented differently on LinkedIn than on Twitter. Students should think about the audiences that are most relevant to their campaign and develop posts to target those audiences. Further, thinking about consistency of messaging is important, so, although the posts are targeted to different audiences on different platforms, the company message remains consistent.
During our research, we found Ablaze Naturals has a presence on both Facebook and Instagram, which are two major platforms. However, posts on both platforms are minimal. We suggest you increase your content on these platforms.
The campaigns should have a goal, as determined by students. Clearly, increasing sales is a common goal, but the goal may be more focused. One campaign may focus on increasing the number of “likes” on a Facebook post, or increasing interaction with users on Twitter, or doubling the number of re-posts or pins on Pinterest.
What factors did you consider when drafting/creating posts for Ablaze Natural’s campaign? When creating content, producers should be aware of communication factors such as audiences for different social media types, conciseness, action verbs and statements, tone and style in posts, visuals, hashtags, sharing of content, responding to consumer posts/comments and interaction with customers.
Different social media platforms target different audiences, and users have different expectations for posts. LinkedIn, for example, is a professional networking site so tone and style should be more formal and professional in content for LinkedIn. Twitter is a perfect social media platform with which to discuss conciseness because of the character limits. Hashtags and keyword discussions are important on many platforms, including Facebook and Instagram.
Other factors for consideration may include the amount of time needed to create and post and linking social media to the company website. Pinterest, for example, has a function that attaches the website link directly to posts, so when a user clicks on a post, they are redirected to the website.
Social media platforms will have their own posting conventions as well. In regard to Instagram, high quality images are vital. For TikTok, high energy, short video posts are the focus. In the research, students should identify the best practices for posting on/using the social media platforms they are proposing and then consider those factors when creating posts.
What did you learn about companies’ use of social media? Reflections on the use of social media may vary widely. Some comments may relate to the number of users on a platform and the platform’s reach across the globe. Other comments may reflect on the types of consumers who use particular platforms (Facebook for grandparents vs Snapchat for teens).
Students often reflect on the interactive nature of social media. Companies need to respond to and interact with social media users. The importance of consumer shared posts, personal experiences and reviews cannot be under-stated.
Monitoring social media is an extensive job. Some companies will create scheduled posts or use outside companies to monitor and control their social media profiles. Others may elicit outside companies, or assign a company employee, to regularly write blog posts with key phrases that search engines will pick up (SEO).
Social media is often seen on a platform-by-platform basis, so looking at a company’s entire social media profile is relevant. It is important to consider the cohesiveness of a company’s voice across platforms and how the company can distribute a consistent message to a wide variety of consumers, or focus on the target audience most relevant to the current campaign or goals.
How did the COVID-19 pandemic affect Ablaze Naturals and/or your ideas for the company? What would you suggest for Ablaze Naturals post-pandemic? Companies’ typical marketing and sales platforms were altered by the shut-downs related to the COVID-19 pandemic. As a result, social media became a major way for companies to sell products. Affects of the pandemic may include: re-focusing marketing budgets and campaigns from traditional models to online models to reach customers; updating social media and electronic platforms; creating pandemic-related campaigns.
Post-pandemic plans are endless and varied. Suggestions may include maintaining exclusive focus on social media marketing or returning to traditional marketing formats or a hybrid. Post-pandemic marketing campaigns may have different focuses (renewal, freedom) or be unrelated to the pandemic at all.
For Assignment Option 1:
For this assignment, provide the students with several weeks for more in-depth research. Ask students to research the best practices for marketing on different social media platforms. Ask them to review other skin care companies’ use of social media. Ask students to decide which 2-3 social media platforms they believe would be most helpful to Ablaze Naturals.
Eventually, student groups may create a social media campaign that spans social media platforms. Their campaign may be presented in a simulated pitch to the company and/or in a written report.
Deliverables may include:
• Oral pitch presentation with slides
• Written letter report to Annalisa, including sample posts. The focus here should be using other companies as comparison, researching best practices for use of social media, and creating a company voice and campaign that spans social media platforms, with attention to the audience, tone, style and uses of each social media platform. Also consider the style, tone, and delivery when communicating with Analisa, the client. The assignment may include attention to the Covid-19 pandemic and the changes expected post-pandemic.
Sample directions provided for Assignment 1 include:
• Look at competitors’ social media use for comparison. What do successful and unsuccessful companies do?
• Research best practices for small companies’ use of social media for marketing. What types of posts are successful on which platforms? Consider type of post, length of post, tone, vocabulary, visual elements, how often and when the company should post.
• Select 2-3 social media platforms you suggest Analisa should use to promote her company.
• Develop a social media campaign for Analisa; the campaign should span social media platforms with consistency of message but differences in content/style as appropriate for each platform.
• Draft social media posts for the campaign. Consider target audience/demographics, word and image choice, hashtags, keywords, captions, reach, re-sharing, engagement with customers.
• Prepare a written or oral report to present to Analisa, considering how best to communicate your ideas to the client.
For Assignment Option 2:
Ask students to research another small company and compare it to Ablaze Naturals. This comparison could involve the following issues:
• Pre vs post pandemic marketing and communication with consumers
• What did the other company do well? What mistakes did they make that Ablaze Naturals could learn from?
Deliverables may include:
• Oral presentation of comparison
• Written report
• Discussion. The focus here should be a compare and contrast between two companies. What did company A do well? What did company A do poorly? Were there opportunities company A missed? What can Ablaze Naturals learn from company A? What do you suggest Ablaze Naturals do or avoid doing? How did the COVID-19 pandemic affect company A’s marketing strategy and communication?
For Assignment Option 3:
In a marketing, branding or social media marketing course, provide students with several weeks to write an integrated marketing plan for Ablaze Naturals. The social media campaign may be one part of the integrated marketing plan. This assignment might include content, email and social media marketing, the two-way interactions in social media marketing, analysis of the product, assessment of the market and market trends, sales and sales analysis, analytics etc.
Students should consider:
• Target audience, including person, channels of engagement, data and analytics
• Positioning and appeal of Ablaze Naturals
• Customer engagement activities and decision-making process
• Alignment of, and consistency within, the comprehensive marketing plan
For this assignment, students may be asked to complete a written report including some or all of the following:
• A SWOT analysis
• Research on current trends, competitor and industry analysis using Porter’s five forces
• Research on current or potential customers
• Primary research (customer interviews or surveys)
• Customer segmentation
• Opportunities and challenges
• Positioning strategies
• Defined objectives of an integrated marketing communication plan
• Marketing tactics
• A media plan
• Integrated marketing communication tools: traditional media (e.g., event) digital media (e.g., social media, website)
• Media plan flow chart, timeline and budget
• Metrics – select performance measures to be tracked and the benchmarks that you want to achieve in order to determine if the proposed marketing strategy and tactics are successful.
• Sales forecast, if applicable
This assignment is appropriate for a marketing class in which students are familiar with SWOT analysis and/or social media metrics. Use of this assignment is best for a marketing instructor versus a business communication instructor who may not have experience teaching the intricacies of integrated marketing plans or marketing tactics.
Common Problems and Solutions When Working with the Ablaze Naturals Case
Students usually work easily with this case because it is related to the social media most of them use every day. However, some problems have occurred.
It is important to help students shift from the mindset of consumer of social media to producer of social media. Social media seems so ubiquitous to many students, they are not always aware of the thought and effort put into creating social media posts. Discussion about the differences in social media platform target audiences is helpful; consider demographics, reason for accessing the platform, ways to engage users etc. Using a stark example is often helpful; LinkedIn’s professional, job searching purpose is clearly different than TikTok’s youthful audience.
Discussion about “best practices” for different platforms is useful. This may include crafting language appropriate to different audiences and social media platforms. It may include use of hashtags and keywords, as well as conventions of the platform, such as what makes an image visually appealing or the length and quality of video posts. Direct students to the platform’s guide for businesses, FAQs, or social media marketing companies’ platforms like Social Media Examiner to help them identify best practices for specific social media.
Depending on the focus of the course, students may need help seeing company-wide goals and issues related to social media. An integrated marketing proposal must consider all aspects of a company’s marketing plan, so discussion of traditional marketing platforms and how the social media marketing fits into those plans may be useful.
Occasionally, students will have no or limited use of social media. When this occurs, start a discussion about the prevalence of social media in marketing and communications today. A company that refuses to use social media or electronic communications will have a difficult time surviving and thriving. Remind students that websites and blogs are types of social media. Usually, if a student is not using platforms like Twitter or TikTok, they are willing to analyze and create content for a website or blog.
In several assignment options, students are asked to create sample social media posts. Reassure students they are not expected to post to their personal social media platforms. Direct them to mock-up sample posts using Word, Google Docs, Canva or another program. Reinforce the visual nature of social media, so demonstrating their proposals with examples is important to helping Ablaze Naturals understand the proposal. Creation of samples for video platforms like TikTok or YouTube may be particularly challenging. Students may record sample videos or write a detailed description of the proposed video (“The video opens with a wide shot of the store and slowly pans into the front showroom,” for example). Sometimes, showing video from a competitor or different company may works as an example of the campaign students are proposing.
Groups have been very creative with solutions and proposed campaigns for Ablaze Naturals. Marketing campaigns may be used on, or integrated into several, social media platforms. Campaign ideas are limited only by student ideas. Campaign ideas have included themes around the pandemic (Covid-19 specials, re-opening demonstrations), holidays (4th of July, winter), and events (weddings, football games). Other campaigns have focused on a particular goal such as increasing sales to a particular demographic (students, for example) or targeting specific audiences or market segments such as eco-friendly customers or a Mexican-American customer segment.
On Instagram, posts may include polls and giveaways. One suggestion for Ablaze Naturals was to create a poll to elicit feedback on new scent options. A photo of the lotion, for example, would include a poll saying, “Which scent do you want—wintergreen or cinnamon?” Polls get users interacting with company content. Giveaways are also popular. A fitness trainer encouraged people to participate in a “tree sit.” Users posted short videos of themselves doing a wall-sit against a tree and the trainer selected three users to win merchandise.
Snapchat users are typically teenagers and young adults who respond to positive or humorous ideas. A suggestion for this platform is to offer a discount on a product when the Snapchat user posts about the product. Restaurants have used this effectively with the Snapchat geo-filter that allows users to identify each other’s locations. A Snapchat post with a geo-filter may be shown at ordering for a free beverage, for example.
Virtual events may occur on many platforms. Facebook live allows for meet and greets, where users could meet company founders, or classes where Ablaze Naturals demonstrates the production or use of their products. During the pandemic, virtual events like 5k races or book club meetings or game nights, have become popular and may be sponsored or run by companies like Ablaze Naturals.
On any platform, making products shoppable is essential. Facebook and Instagram, and others, will tie posts to a website for ordering. Review sites like Google or other platforms include links to the company’s website. Ensuring those links are accurate and responding to user feedback left on sites are other ideas.
On newer social media platforms, influencers play a huge role. It has been suggested that Ablaze Naturals send up-coming influencers some products to try and review in an attempt to increase visibility on social media.
Another suggestion was partnering with other companies or organizations. Ablaze Naturals might partner with schools to promote education about eco-friendly products or partner with a non-profit to start a “plant a tree with purchase” campaign.
It was suggested that TikTok’s young demographic makes it an excellent platform on which to target teens. A recent TikTok campaign focused on Proactiv acne treatment was suggested as an example. A successful TikTok campaign would include video showing users pleased with the products, video showing how the products work, and videos with upbeat music. Hashtags on Ablaze Naturals’ posts should be similar to those on popular products. Ablaze Naturals may create a campaign like Ulta beauty’s 21 Days of Beauty to keep users’ interest for a period of time.
For more information on, and examples of, successful social media marketing and campaigns, see:
Cooper, P. (2019, Sept.). 11 Important Skills for Social Media Managers. Hootsuite. Retrieved February 25, 2020, from https://blog.hootsuite.com/social-media-manager-skills/
Digital Marketing Institute. (2017). 10 Digital Skills that Can Make Students Instantly Employable. Retrieved February 25, 2020, from https://digitalmarketinginstitute.com/blog/10-digital-skills-that-can-make-students-instantly-employable
Doyle, A. (2020, Oct.). Important Social Media Skills that Employers Value. The Balance Careers. Retrieved February 26, 2020, from https://www.thebalancecareers.com/social-media-skills-2063726
NACE Staff. (2019, March). The Four Career Competencies Employers Value Most. Retrieved February 26, 2020, from https://www.naceweb.org/career-readiness/competencies/the-four-career-competencies-employers-value-most/
Olsson, A.K. and Bernhard, I. (2020). Keeping Up the Pace of Digitalization in Small Businesses—Women Entrepreneurs’ Knowledge and Use of Social Media. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior and Research. 27(2), 378-396.
Pastore, A. (2020, Feb.). Data Shows Surge in February Online Orders. Retrieved February 25, 2021, from https://wwd.com/business-news/business-features/coronavirus-data-surge-in-february-online-orders-1203546324/
Schultz, E.J., Neff, J., and Pasquarelli, A. (2020). Six Things Keeping CMOs Up at Night: The Top Planning, Messaging, and Media Challenges on the Minds of Marketing Leaders Heading into 2021. Advertising Age. 91(17), 14.
Talbot, P. (2020, March). How the Coronavirus Pandemic Impacts Marketing Strategy. Forbes. Retrieved February 23, 2021, from https://www.forbes.com/sites/paultalbot/2020/03/19/how-the-coronavirus-pandemic-impacts-marketing-strategy/?sh=728beb4c4dc2
Williams, R. (2020, June). Mobile ad engagement rises 15% during pandemic, study says. Retrieved February 25, 2020, from https://www.marketingdive.com/news/mobile-ad-engagement-rises-15-during-pandemic-study-says/579419/
Emily Carlson Goenner is an assistant professor of marketing at St. Cloud State University.
Emily Carlson Goenner. (2021). How to stay ablaze: Exploring a young company’s social media use. the Western ABC Bulletin, 3.1.